Consensus guidelines for the definition, detection and interpretation of immunogenic cell death

Lorenzo Galluzzi, Ilio Vitale, Sarah Warren, Sandy Adjemian, Patrizia Agostinis, Aitziber Buqué Martinez, Timothy A. Chan, George Coukos, Sandra Demaria, Eric Deutsch, Dobrin Draganov, Richard L. Edelson, Silvia C. Formenti, Jitka Fucikova, Lucia Gabriele, Udo S. Gaipl, Sofia R. Gameiro, Abhishek D. Garg, Encouse Golden, Jian HanKevin J. Harrington, Akseli Hemminki, James W. Hodge, Dewan Md Sakib Hossain, Tim Illidge, Michael Karin, Howard L. Kaufman, Oliver Kepp, Guido Kroemer, Juan Jose Lasarte, Sherene Loi, Michael T. Lotze, Gwenola Manic, Taha Merghoub, Alan A. Melcher, Karen L. Mossman, Felipe Prosper, Øystein Rekdal, Maria Rescigno, Chiara Riganti, Antonella Sistigu, Mark J. Smyth, Radek Spisek, John Stagg, Bryan E. Strauss, Daolin Tang, Kazuki Tatsuno, Stefaan W. Van Gool, Peter Vandenabeele, Takahiro Yamazaki, Dmitriy Zamarin, Laurence Zitvogel, Alessandra Cesano, Francesco M. Marincola

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

664 Scopus citations


Cells succumbing to stress via regulated cell death (RCD) can initiate an adaptive immune response associated with immunological memory, provided they display sufficient antigenicity and adjuvanticity. Moreover, multiple intracellular and microenvironmental features determine the propensity of RCD to drive adaptive immunity. Here, we provide an updated operational definition of immunogenic cell death (ICD), discuss the key factors that dictate the ability of dying cells to drive an adaptive immune response, summarize experimental assays that are currently available for the assessment of ICD in vitro and in vivo, and formulate guidelines for their interpretation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000337
JournalJournal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - 9 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • immunology
  • molecular biology
  • oncology


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