Noonan syndrome is a pleomorphic genetic disorder, in which a high percentage of affected individuals have cardiovascular involvement, most prevalently various forms of congenital heart disease (i.e., pulmonary valve stenosis, septal defects, left-sided lesions, and complex forms with multiple anomalies). Care includes attentiveness to several comorbidities, some directly impacting cardiac management (bleeding diatheses and lymphatic anomalies). More than 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome harbor PTPN11 pathogenic variation, which results in hyperactivation of RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Several other disease genes with similar biological effects have been uncovered for NS and phenotypically related disorders, collectively called the RASopathies. Molecular diagnosis with gene resequencing panels is now widely available, but phenotype variability and in some cases, subtlety, continues to make identification of Noonan syndrome difficult. Until genetic testing becomes universal for patients with congenital heart disease, alertness to Noonan syndrome's broad clinical presentations remains crucial. Genotype–phenotype associations for Noonan syndrome enable better prognostication for affected patients when a molecular diagnosis is established. We still lack Noonan syndrome-specific treatment; however, newly developed anticancer RAS pathway inhibitors could fill that gap if safety and efficacy can be established for indications such as pulmonary valve stenosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-80
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Noonan syndrome
  • RASopathy
  • congenital heart disease


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