Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are highly effective treatments for brain metastases, particularly when these therapies are administered concurrently. However, there are limited data reporting the risk of radiation necrosis (RN) in this setting. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases from primary non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, or melanoma treated with SRS and ICI were considered. Time-to-event analyses were conducted for any grade RN and symptomatic RN (SRN) with death incorporated as a competing risk. As a secondary analysis, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used for model development, and a loop of potential models was analyzed, with the highest-fidelity model selected. Brain V12 Gy thresholds identified on RPA were then incorporated into the competing risks analysis. Concurrent SRS and ICI administration. Results: Six hundred fifty-seven patients with 4182 brain metastases across 11 international institutions were analyzed. The median follow-up for all patients was 13.4 months. The median follow-up was 12.8 months and 14.1 months for the concurrent and nonconcurrent groups, respectively (P = .03). The median patient age was 66 years, and the median Karnofsky Performance Status was 90. In patients with any grade RN, 1- and 2-year rates were 6.4% and 9.9%, respectively. In patients with SRN, 1- and 2-year rates were 4.8% and 7.2%, respectively. On RPA, the highest-fidelity models consistently identified V12 Gy as the dominant variable predictive of RN. Three risk groups were identified by V12 Gy: (1) < 12 cm3; (2) 20 cm3 ≥ V12 Gy ≥ 12 cm3; (3) V12 Gy > 20 cm3. In patients with any grade RN, 1-year rates were 3.7% (V12 Gy < 12 cm3), 10.3% (20 cm3 ≥ V12 Gy ≥ 12 cm3), and 12.6% (V12 Gy > 20 cm3); the 2-year rates were 7.5% (V12 Gy < 12 cm3), 13.8% (20 cm3 ≥ V12 Gy ≥ 12 cm3), and 15.4% (V12 Gy > 20 cm3) (P < 0.001). In patients with any SRN, 1-year rates were 2.4% (V12 Gy < 12 cm3), 8.9% (20 cm3 ≥ V12 Gy ≥ 12 cm3), and 10.3% (V12 Gy > 20 cm3); the 2-year rates were 4.4% (V12 Gy < 12 cm3), 12.4% (20 cm3 ≥ V12 Gy ≥ 12 cm3), and 13.1% (V12 Gy > 20 cm3; P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in rates of any grade RN or SRN when accounting for therapy timing for all patients and by V12 risk group identified on RPA. Conclusions: The use of SRS and ICI results in a low risk of any grade RN and SRN. This risk is not increased with concurrent administration. Therefore, ICI can safely be administered within 4-weeks of SRS. Three risk groups based on V12 Gy were identified, which clinicians may consider to further reduce rates of RN.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|State||Published - 15 Jul 2023|