Background: Interventions targeting the adaptive immune response are needed in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: Evaluate laquinimod’s efficacy, safety, and tolerability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: CONCERTO was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase-3 study. RRMS patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive once-daily oral laquinimod 0.6 or 1.2 mg or placebo for ⩽24 months (n = 727, n = 732, and n = 740, respectively). Primary endpoint was time to 3-month confirmed disability progression (CDP). The laquinimod 1.2-mg dose arm was discontinued (1 January 2016) due to cardiovascular events at high doses. Safety was monitored throughout the study. Results: CONCERTO did not meet the primary endpoint of significant effect with laquinimod 0.6-mg versus placebo on 3-month CDP (hazard ratio: 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–1.31; p = 0.706). Secondary endpoint p values were nominal and non-inferential. Laquinimod 0.6 mg demonstrated 40% reduction in percent brain volume change from baseline to Month 15 versus placebo (p < 0.0001). The other secondary endpoint, time to first relapse, and annualized relapse rate (an exploratory endpoint) were numerically lower (both, p = 0.0001). No unexpected safety findings were reported with laquinimod 0.6 mg. Conclusion: Laquinimod 0.6 mg demonstrated only nominally significant effects on clinical relapses and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes and was generally well tolerated. Clinical trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01707992).
- Multiple sclerosis
- disability progression