Complexity in biological signaling systems

Gezhi Weng, Upinder S. Bhalla, Ravi Iyengar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

498 Scopus citations


Biological signaling pathways interact with one another to form complex networks. Complexity arises from the large number of components, many with isoforms that have partially overlapping functions; from the connections among components; and from the spatial relationship between components. The origins of the complex behavior of signaling networks and analytical approaches to deal with the emergent complexity are discussed here.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)92-96
Number of pages5
Issue number5411
StatePublished - 2 Apr 1999


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