Comparison of Transcarotid Artery Revascularization and Transfemoral Carotid Artery Stenting Based on High Risk Anatomic Characteristics

Jerry Zhu, Ajit Rao, Windsor Ting, Daniel Han, Rami Tadros, David Finlay, John Phair, Ageliki Vouyouka, Helen Liu, Michael Marin, Peter Faries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Anatomic details affecting the adverse outcomes following carotid artery stenting have not been well characterized. We compared in-hospital outcomes following transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) and transfemoral carotid artery stenting (TFCAS) among symptomatic and asymptomatic patients stratified by degree of lesion calcification and aortic arch type. Methods: Data from patients in the Society for Vascular Surgery's Vascular Quality Initiative database undergoing TCAR (January 2017 to April 2020) or TFCAS (May 2005 to April 2020) and had non-missing grading on carotid artery calcification or aortic arch type was analyzed. Degree of calcification was stratified into 3 groups: none, ≤ 50% calcification, and >50% calcification. Arch type was stratified as Type I, Type II, and Type III. Results: A total of 9,868 patients (TCAR: 4,224; TFCAS: 5,644) were included in the calcification analysis. TCAR patients were generally older, white, smokers, and had more comorbidities than TFCAS patients. Among the symptomatic patients, there was no difference in rates of stroke, stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), and myocardial infarction (MI) by calcification severity between TCAR and TFCAS. However, there was a trend towards increased risk in all 3 events with higher calcification only after TFCAS. Symptomatic patients with severe (>50%) calcification had lower rates of death (TCAR: 0.9% vs. TFCAS: 2.8%, P = 0.013), stroke/death (TCAR: 2.7% vs. TFCAS: 5.8%, P = 0.006), stroke/death/MI (TCAR: 3.3% vs. TFCAS: 6.5%, P = 0.007), and postop complications (TCAR: 6.0% vs. TFCAS: 12.4%, P < 0.001) after TCAR compared to TFCAS. Furthermore, TCAR had lower risk of mortality at all degrees of calcification compared to TFCAS. Similar findings were noted among asymptomatic TCAR patients with >50% calcification, in which the rates of death (TCAR: 0.4% vs. TFCAS: 1.1%, P = 0.080) and stroke/death (TCAR: 1.5% vs. TFCAS: 3.1%, P = 0.029) were reduced. A comparison of TCAR to TFCAS by arch type showed that rates of stroke/death after TCAR were similar regardless of arch complexity (Type I: 2.6% vs. Type II: 2.8%), but increased after TFCAS with complex, high risk anatomy (Type I: 4.2% vs. Type II: 5.2%). Conclusions: While increased calcification increased rates of adverse events after TFCAS, this trend was not observed after TCAR, which also had lower rates of death and stroke/death among patients with severe calcification. Furthermore, TCAR had lower risk of mortality than TFCAS across all degrees of calcification. TFCAS was associated with increased risk of stroke/death with complex aortic arch anatomy, however, rates of stroke/death after TCAR were similar regardless of arch complexity. Our results suggests that TCAR should be preferentially considered in revascularization of patients with anatomy considered high-risk for TFCAS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-30
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
Volume87
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

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