This paper describes the clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood, with particular emphasis placed on issues relating to comorbidity. Prospective and retrospective studies are reviewed to evaluate the degree to which adults with ADHD exhibit clinical features that mirror their childhood counterparts with analogous comorbid psychiatric (e.g., antisocial, mood, and anxiety) and/or cognitive (i.e., learning) disorders. We also address the question of whether comorbid disorders in adults represent independent diagnostic entities and whether the presence of psychiatric comorbidity varies as a function of ADHD subtype (i.e., inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, combined, and residual). As is the case for ADHD in childhood, comorbidity is not uncommon among adults with ADHD. However, the reported prevalence of comorbid conditions among adults with ADHD varies considerably, depending upon whether the research used a prospective or retrospective design.
|Number of pages||23|
|Journal||Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences|
|State||Published - 2001|
- Prospective studies
- Retrospective studies