Comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

David J. Marks, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, Jeffrey M. Halperin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


This paper describes the clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood, with particular emphasis placed on issues relating to comorbidity. Prospective and retrospective studies are reviewed to evaluate the degree to which adults with ADHD exhibit clinical features that mirror their childhood counterparts with analogous comorbid psychiatric (e.g., antisocial, mood, and anxiety) and/or cognitive (i.e., learning) disorders. We also address the question of whether comorbid disorders in adults represent independent diagnostic entities and whether the presence of psychiatric comorbidity varies as a function of ADHD subtype (i.e., inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, combined, and residual). As is the case for ADHD in childhood, comorbidity is not uncommon among adults with ADHD. However, the reported prevalence of comorbid conditions among adults with ADHD varies considerably, depending upon whether the research used a prospective or retrospective design.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-238
Number of pages23
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
StatePublished - 2001


  • ADHD
  • Adults
  • Comorbidity
  • Prospective studies
  • Retrospective studies


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