Community walking speed, sedentary or lying down time, and mortality in peripheral artery disease

Mary M. McDermott, Jack M. Guralnik, Luigi Ferrucci, Lu Tian, Melina R. Kibbe, Philip Greenland, David Green, Kiang Liu, Lihui Zhao, John T. Wilkins, Mark D. Huffman, Sanjiv J. Shah, Yihua Liao, Ying Gao, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Michael H. Criqui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


We studied whether slower community walking speed and whether greater time spent lying down or sleeping were associated with higher mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 were identified from Chicago medical centers. At baseline, participants reported their usual walking speed outside their home and the number of hours they spent lying down or sleeping per day. Cause of death was adjudicated using death certificates and medical record review. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, and other confounders. Of 1314 PAD participants, 189 (14.4%) died, including 63 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Mean follow-up was 34.9 months ± 18.1. Relative to average or normal pace (2-3 miles/hour), slower walking speed was associated with greater CVD mortality: no walking at all: hazard ratio (HR) = 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46-11.89; casual strolling (0-2 miles/hour): HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.16-4.32; brisk or striding (>3 miles/hour): HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.07-4.30. These associations were not significant after additional adjustment for the six-minute walk. Relative to sleeping or lying down for 8-9 hours, fewer or greater hours sleeping or lying down were associated with higher CVD mortality: 4-7 hours: HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.06-4.05; 10-11 hours: HR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.86-8.89; <12 hours: HR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.47-9.62. These associations were maintained after adjustment for the six-minute walk. In conclusion, slower walking speed outside the home and less than 8 hours or more than 9 hours lying down per day are potentially modifiable behaviors associated with increased CVD mortality in patients with PAD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-129
Number of pages10
JournalVascular Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiovascular mortality
  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • intermittent claudication
  • modifiable behaviors
  • peripheral artery disease
  • physical activity
  • sedentary
  • six-minute walk test


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