Common Toxidromes and the Role of Extracorporeal Detoxification

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Extracorporeal modalities have been used for detoxification for decades, with hemodialysis the preferred and most commonly used modality. Salicylates, lithium, methanol, and ethylene glycol are the most common poisonings treated with dialysis. For each of these common poisonings, a description of the toxidrome including pharmacokinetics, clinical presentation, an overview of treatment, and the role and application of dialysis is outlined. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent the formation of toxic metabolites in methanol and ethylene glycol is discussed in detail, including the use of fomepizole and ethanol to complement and in some cases prevent the need for hemodialysis. Hemodialysis has been attempted to treat many poisonings, often without success. A description of EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning), a multidisciplinary project examining the evidence for extracorporeal treatments in poisoning, is also described. Recommendations for poisoning with acetaminophen, baclofen, barbiturates, carbamazepine, digoxin, metformin, phenytoin, thallium, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, and valproic acid are provided in a comprehensive table.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-17
Number of pages7
JournalAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Ethylene glycol
  • Hemodialysis
  • Lithium
  • Methanol
  • Salicylates


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