Combined Use of Prostate-specific Antigen Density and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Biopsy Decision Planning: A Retrospective Multi-institutional Study Using the Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Outcome Database (PROMOD)

Ugo Giovanni Falagario, Ivan Jambor, Anna Lantz, Otto Ettala, Armando Stabile, Pekka Taimen, Hannu J. Aronen, Juha Knaapila, Ileana Montoya Perez, Giorgio Gandaglia, Nicola Fossati, Alberto Martini, Vito Cucchiara, Wolfgang Picker, Erik Haug, Parita Ratnani, Kenneth Haines, Sara Lewis, Nair Sujit, Oscar SelvaggioFrancesca Sanguedolce, Luca Macarini, Luigi Cormio, Tobias Nordström, Ash Tewari, Alberto Briganti, Peter J. Boström, Giuseppe Carrieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAd) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy (PB) with a limited risk of missing clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa; Gleason grade group [GGG] >1). OBJECTIVE: To define optimal diagnostic strategies based on the combined use of PSAd and MRI in patients at risk of prostate cancer (PCa). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective analysis of the international multicenter Prostate MRI Outcome Database (PROMOD), including 2512 men having undergone PSAd and prostate MRI before PB between 2013 and 2019, was performed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Rates of avoided PB, missed GGG 1, and csPCa according to 10 strategies based on PSAd values and MRI reporting scores (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS]/Likert/IMPROD biparametric prostate MRI Likert). Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to statistically compare the net benefit of each strategy. Combined systematic and targeted biopsies were used for reference. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: According to DCA, the best strategy in biopsy-naive patients was #7 (PI-RADS/Likert 4-5 or PI-RADS/Likert 3 if PSAd >0.2), which avoided 41.2% PBs while missed 44% of GGG 1 and 10.9% of csPCa cases. From a clinical standpoint, however, strategies with a lower risk of missing csPCa included #10 (PI-RADS/Likert 4-5 or PI-RADS 3 if PSAd >0.10 or PSAd >0.2), which avoided 27% PBs while missing 24.4% GGG 1 and 4% csPCa cases, or #5 (PI-RADS/Likert 3-5 or PSAd>0.15), which avoided 14.7% PBs while missing 9.3% GGG 1 and 1.7% csPCa cases. Similar results were found in patients with a previous negative biopsy. This study is limited by its retrospective nature, and no central review of MRI and histopathological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Combined PSAd and MRI findings allows individualization of the decision to perform PB on the basis of the risk of missing PCa that both patients and clinicians are ready to accept to avoid this procedure. PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared several biopsy strategies based on a combination of prostate magnetic resonance imaging findings and prostate-specific antigen density, providing a readily available tool for each center and practicing urologist to counsel patients about their individual risk of significant prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971-979
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean urology oncology
Volume4
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Biopsy naive
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Previous negative biopsy
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostate-specific antigen density

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