Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory condition with substantial burden and limited treatment options for adolescents with moderate-to-severe disease. Significantly more patients treated with dupilumab vs. placebo achieved Investigator’s Global Assessment 0/1 at week 16. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of dupilumab treatment vs. placebo on the achievement of clinically meaningful improvements in atopic dermatitis signs, symptoms and quality of life. Methods: R668-AD-1526 LIBERTY AD ADOL was a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group, phase III clinical trial. Two hundred and fifty-one adolescents with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis received dupilumab 300 mg every 4 weeks (q4w; n = 84), dupilumab 200 or 300 mg every 2 weeks (q2w; n = 82), or placebo (n = 85). A post-hoc subgroup analysis was performed on 214 patients with Investigator’s Global Assessment > 1 at week 16. Measures of atopic dermatitis signs, symptoms, and quality of life were assessed. Clinically meaningful improvement in one or more of three domains of signs, symptoms, and quality of life was defined as an improvement of ≥ 50% in Eczema Area and Severity Index, ≥ 3 points in Peak Pruritus Numerical Rating Scale, or ≥ 6 points in the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index from baseline. Results: Of patients receiving dupilumab q2w, 80.5% [66/82] experienced clinically meaningful improvements in atopic dermatitis signs, symptoms, or quality of life at week 16 (vs. placebo, 20/85 [23.5%], difference 57.0% [95% confidence interval 44.5–69.4]; q4w vs. placebo, 53/84 [63.1%], difference 39.6% [95% confidence interval 25.9–53.3]; both p < 0.0001). Results were similar in adolescents with Investigator’s Global Assessment > 1 at week 16 (q2w, 46/62 [74.2%] vs. placebo, 18/83 [21.7%], difference 52.5% [95% confidence interval 38.5–66.6]; q4w, 38/69 [55.1%] vs. placebo, difference 33.4% [95% confidence interval 18.7–48.1]; both p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Dupilumab provided clinically meaningful improvements in signs, symptoms, and quality of life in adolescents with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis among patients with Investigator’s Global Assessment > 1 at week 16. Treatment responses should be interpreted in the context of such clinically relevant patient-reported outcome measures. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT03054428. Video abstract: [MediaObject not available: see fulltext.].