Clinical Utility of KidneyIntelX in Early Stages of Diabetic Kidney Disease in the CANVAS Trial

David Lam, Girish N. Nadkarni, Gohar Mosoyan, Bruce Neal, Kenneth W. Mahaffey, Norman Rosenthal, Michael K. Hansen, Hiddo J.L. Heerspink, Fergus Fleming, Steven G. Coca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: KidneyIntelX is a composite risk score, incorporating biomarkers and clinical variables for predicting progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The utility of this score in the context of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and how changes in the risk score associate with future kidney outcomes are unknown. Methods: We measured soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, soluble TNFR-2, and kidney injury molecule 1 on banked samples from CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) trial participants with baseline DKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥30 mg/g) and generated KidneyIntelX risk scores at baseline and years 1, 3, and 6. We assessed the association of baseline and changes in KidneyIntelX with subsequent DKD progression (composite outcome of an eGFR decline of ≥5 mL/min/year [using the 6-week eGFR as the baseline in the canagliflozin group], ≥40% sustained decline in the eGFR, or kidney failure). Results: We included 1,325 CANVAS participants with concurrent DKD and available baseline plasma samples (mean eGFR 65 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median UACR 56 mg/g). During a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, 131 participants (9.9%) experienced the composite kidney outcome. Using risk cutoffs from prior validation studies, KidneyIntelX stratified patients to low- (42%), intermediate- (44%), and high-risk (15%) strata with cumulative incidence for the outcome of 3%, 11%, and 26% (risk ratio 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.0, 14.2) for the high-risk versus low-risk groups. The differences in eGFR slopes for canagliflozin versus placebo were 0.66, 1.52, and 2.16 mL/min/1.73 m2 in low, intermediate, and high KidneyIntelX risk strata, respectively. KidneyIntelX risk scores declined by 5.4% (95% CI: -6.9, -3.9) in the canagliflozin arm at year 1 versus an increase of 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.7) in the placebo arm (p < 0.001). Changes in the KidneyIntelX score at year 1 were associated with future risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio per 10 unit decrease 0.80; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.83; p < 0.001) after accounting for the treatment arm, without evidence of effect modification by the baseline KidneyIntelX risk stratum or by the treatment arm. Conclusions: KidneyIntelX successfully risk-stratified a large multinational external cohort for progression of DKD, and greater numerical differences in the eGFR slope for canagliflozin versus placebo were observed in those with higher baseline KidneyIntelX scores. Canagliflozin treatment reduced KidneyIntelX risk scores over time and changes in the KidneyIntelX score from baseline to 1 year associated with future risk of DKD progression, independent of the baseline risk score and treatment arm.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Biomarkers
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Prognosis
  • Response to therapy


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