Clinical Trial Design for Lipoprotein(a)-Lowering Therapies: JACC Focus Seminar 2/3

Waqas A. Malick, Sascha N. Goonewardena, Wolfgang Koenig, Robert S. Rosenson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a source of residual risk in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Clinical trials of fully human monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 have shown that reductions in Lp(a) concentrations may be a predictor of event reduction with this class of cholesterol-lowering therapy. With the advent of selective therapies targeting Lp(a) such as antisense oligonucleotides, small-interfering RNA–based therapies, and gene editing, lowering of Lp(a) may lead to reduction in ASCVD. The phase 3 Lp(a)HORIZON (Assessing the Impact of Lipoprotein(a) Lowering with TQJ230 on Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients With CVD) outcomes trial is currently testing the effect of pelacarsen, an antisense oligonucleotide, on ASCVD risk. Olpasiran is a small-interfering RNA that is in a phase 3 clinical trial. As these therapies enter clinical trials, challenges in trial design will have to be addressed to optimize patient selection and outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1633-1645
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number16
StatePublished - 25 Apr 2023


  • Lp(a)
  • Lp(a) clinical trials
  • olpasiran
  • pelacarsen


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