Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early to mid-life is associated with an increased risk of dementia in late life. It is unclear whether TBI results in acceleration of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology or has features of another dementing condition, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with more-prominent mood, behavior, and motor disturbances than AD. Data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set was obtained over a 5-year period. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Continuous parametric data were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Nonparametric data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test. Overall, 877 individuals with dementia who had sustained TBI were identified in the NACC database. Only TBI with chronic deficit or dysfunction was associated with increased risk of dementia. Patients with dementia after TBI (n=62) were significantly more likely to experience depression, anxiety, irritability, and motor disorders than patients with probable AD. Autopsy data were available for 20 of the 62 TBI patients. Of the patients with TBI, 62% met National Institute of Aging-Reagan Institute "high likelihood" criteria for AD. We conclude that TBI with chronic deficit or dysfunction is associated with an increased odds ratio for dementia. Clinically, patients with dementia associated with TBI were more likely to have symptoms of depression, agitation, irritability, and motor dysfunction than patients with probable AD. These findings suggest that dementia in individuals with a history of TBI may be distinct from AD.
- Alzheimer's disease
- National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center
- chronic traumatic encephalopathy