Clinical Outcomes for Patients With Monomicrobial vs Polymicrobial Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex Infections Treated With Sulbactam-Durlobactam or Colistin: A Subset Analysis From a Phase 3 Clinical Trial

Sarah M. McLeod, Alita A. Miller, Khurram Rana, David Altarac, Samir H. Moussa, Adam B. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of sulbactam-durlobactam vs colistin for the treatment of patients with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex (CRABC) infections were evaluated in a randomized controlled phase 3 trial. Both arms were dosed on a background of imipenem-cilastatin to treat coinfecting gram-negative pathogens. Thirty-six percent of infections in the primary efficacy population were polymicrobial. Methods. A subset analysis was performed to compare clinical and microbiological outcomes at test of cure (7 ± 2 days after the last dose) for patients with monomicrobial and polymicrobial CRABC infections. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics against baseline isolates were determined by broth microdilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results. Clinical cure, 28-day all-cause mortality, and microbiological outcomes were similar for patients in the sulbactamdurlobactam treatment arm with monomicrobial or polymicrobial A baumannii-calcoaceticus infections. Patients in the colistin arm with monomicrobial CRABC infections had higher mortality rates with worse clinical and microbiological outcomes as compared with those with polymicrobial infections. For patients who received sulbactam-durlobactam, imipenem susceptibility of coinfecting gram-negative pathogens trended with clinical benefit for patients with polymicrobial A baumannii-calcoaceticus infections. When tested in vitro, durlobactam restored imipenem susceptibility to the majority of coinfecting gram-negative pathogens from the sulbactam-durlobactam arm. This phenotype appeared to be related to the clinical outcome in 13 of 15 evaluable cases. Conclusions. These results suggest that the use of sulbactam-durlobactam plus a carbapenem could be an effective approach to treat polymicrobial infections that include CRABC, but additional clinical data are needed to demonstrate efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofae140
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acinetobacter
  • carbapenem-resistant
  • pneumonia
  • polymicrobial infection
  • sulbactam-durlobactam

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