Clinical Outcomes Following Percutaneous Ankle Fusion With Bone Graft Substitute

Gerard F. Marciano, Harrison R. Ferlauto, Jamie Confino, Meghan Kelly, Michele F. Surace, Ettore Vulcano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Percutaneous ankle fusion is an emerging technique with minimal published outcome data. The goal of the present study is to retrospectively review clinical and radiographic outcomes following percutaneous ankle fusion and provide technique tips to perform percutaneous ankle fusion. Methods: Patients >18 years of age, treated by a single surgeon, from February 2018 to June 2021, who underwent primary isolated percutaneous ankle fusion supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor B (rhPDGF-BB) and beta-tricalcium phosphate, with at least 1-year follow-up were included. Surgical technique consisted of percutaneous ankle preparation followed by fixation with 3 headless compression screws. Pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) and Foot Function Index (FFI) were compared using paired t tests. Fusion was assessed radiographically by the surgeon on postoperative radiographs and computed tomography (CT) at 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty-seven consecutive adult patients were included in the study. Mean follow-up was 21 months. Mean age was 59.8 years. Mean preoperative and postoperative VAS scores were 7.4 and 0.2, respectively (P <.01). Mean preoperative FFI pain domain, disability domain, activity restriction domain, and total score were 20.9, 16.7, 18.5, and 56.4, respectively. Mean postoperative FFI pain domain, disability domain, activity restriction domain, and total score were 4.3, 4.7, 6.7, and 15.8, respectively (P <.01). Fusion was achieved in 26 of 27 patients (96.3%) at 3 months. Four patients (14.8%) had complications. Conclusion: We found in this cohort with surgery performed by a surgeon highly experienced in minimally invasive surgery that percutaneous ankle fusion augmented with a bone graft supplement achieved a high rate of fusion (96.3%) and a significant improvement in pain and function postoperatively while associated with minimal complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFoot and Ankle Orthopaedics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • ankle
  • arthritis
  • outcomes


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