Clinical markers in heart failure: a narrative review

Nismat Javed, Markos El-Far, Timothy J. Vittorio

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome that is one of the causes of high mortality worldwide. Additionally, healthcare systems around the world are also being burdened by the aging population and subsequently, increasing estimates of patients with heart failure. As a result, it is crucial to determine novel ways to reduce the healthcare costs, rate of hospitalizations and mortality. In this regard, clinical biomarkers play a very important role in stratifying risk, determining prognosis or diagnosis and monitoring patient responses to therapy. This narrative review discusses the wide spectrum of clinical biomarkers, novel inventions of new techniques, their advantages and limitations as well as applications. As heart failure rates increase, cost-effective diagnostic tools such as B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide are crucial, with emerging markers like neprilysin and cardiac imaging showing promise, though larger studies are needed to confirm their effectiveness compared with traditional markers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3000605241254330
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2024


  • biomarkers
  • diagnosis
  • healthcare cost
  • Heart failure
  • monitoring
  • prognosis
  • treatment


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