4D flow MRI allows time-resolved 3D velocity-encoded phase-contrast imaging for 3D visualization and quantification of aortic and intracardiac flow. Radiologists should be familiar with the principles of 4D flow MRI and methods for evaluating blood flow qualitatively and quantitatively. The most substantial benefits of 4D flow MRI are that it enables the simultaneous comprehensive assessment of different vessels, and that retrospective analysis can be achieved in all vessels in any direction in the field of view, which is especially beneficial for patients with complicated congenital heart disease (CHD). For aortic valvular diseases, new parameters such as wall shear stress and energy loss may provide new prognostic values for 4D flow MRI. In this review, we introduce the clinical applications of 4D flow MRI for the visualization of blood flow and quantification of hemodynamic metrics in the setting of aortic valvular disease and CHD, including intracardiac shunt and coronary artery anomaly.
- 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging
- Aortic valvular disease
- Blood flow
- Congenital heart disease