Clinical and prognostic features of rectal neuroendocrine tumors

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57 Scopus citations


Background: Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are among the most common NETs. The aim was to validate European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS)/North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) staging and grading systems with regard to clinical outcomes. Methods: A comprehensive database was constructed from existing databases of the Mount Sinai Division of Gastrointestinal Pathology and the Carcinoid Cancer Foundation. Analysis was performed on 141 patients identified with rectal NETs seen at Mount Sinai Hospital between 1972 and 2011. Results: The median age was 52.7 years; 43% were males. Average tumor size was 0.88 cm. NETs <1 cm accounted for 75.6% of the tumors. Stage I, II, III and IV accounted for 79.4, 2.8, 5.0 and 12.8% of the tumors, respectively. G1 tumors accounted for 88.1%, G2 8.3% and G3 3.6%. Of G1 tumors, 94.6% were stage I and 5.4% were stage IV. The median survival time for all 141 patients was 6.8 years (range, 0.8-34.7 years). The overall 5-year survival rate was 84.4%. The 5-year survival rates for patients in stages I-IV were 92.7, 75.0, 42.9 and 33.2%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates for patients with G1-G3 tumors were 87.7, 47.6 and 33.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis of increased survival showed significance for lower stage, lower grade, smaller size, absence of symptoms and endoscopically treated tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that stage alone was statistically significant as the strongest predictor of survival. Conclusion: The results of our study validated ENETS/NANETS guidelines for staging and grading of rectal NETs in the US setting of a tertiary referral center. Staging according to ENETS/NANETS guidelines should be used in the treatment algorithm rather than size alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-187
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Carcinoids
  • Grade
  • Prognosis
  • Rectal neuroendocrine tumors
  • Size
  • Stage
  • Survival


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