BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. We evaluated the impact of smoking status on hematoma expansion and clinical outcome in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a post hoc exploratory analysis of the ATACH (Antihypertensive Treatment at Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage)-2 trial. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were randomized into intensive blood pressure lowering (systolic blood pressure, <139 mm Hg) versus standard blood pressure lowering (systolic blood pressure, 140–179 mm Hg) in this study. We compared the demographic characteristics; hematoma size, location, and expansion rate; and clinical outcome based on subjects’ smoking status. Of a total of 914 patients in the trial with known smoking status, 439 (48%) patients were ever smokers (264 current smokers and 175 former smokers). Current and former smokers were younger and more likely to be men. Baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score and initial hematoma size did not vary based on smoking status. Ever smokers had higher rates of thalamic hemorrhage (42% versus 34%) and intraventricular hemorrhage (29% versus 23%); this rate was highest among former smokers versus current smokers (49% versus 35%, respectively). Ever smokers had a higher rate of hematoma expansion in 24 hours (adjusted relative risk [RR] [95% CI], 1.46 [1.08–1.96]) compared with nonsmokers on multivariate analysis. There was no significant difference in the rate of death and disability at 90 days between the 2 groups (adjusted RR [95% CI], 1.18 [0.998–1.40]). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates cigarette smoking as an independent predictor for hematoma expansion. There was no significant difference in death and disability based on smoking status.
- intracerebral hemorrhage
- randomized clinical trial