Chronic kidney disease and risk factor prevalence in Saint Kitts and Nevis: A cross-sectional study

Deidra C. Crews, Kirk N. Campbell, Yang Liu, Odell Bussue, Ingrid Dawkins, Bessie A. Young

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6 Scopus citations


Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in St. Kitts and Nevis, islands of the West Indies, is unknown. We sought to determine estimates of CKD and its risk factors (e.g. diabetes, hypertension and obesity) in St. Kitts and Nevis. Methods: This was a chronic disease screening program. Three community-based locations in St. Kitts and Nevis were included in the program. Participants were adult community residents aged ≥18 years. The main outcome measures were estimated CKD prevalence (by serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and dipstick urine albumin); and estimated prevalence of CKD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension and obesity). Logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of CKD. Results: One thousand nine hundred seventy eight persons, from Nevis (n = 950) and St. Kitts (n = 1028) were screened by the Caribbean Health and Education Foundation. Participants' mean age was 49 ± 15 years, 65% were female, and 99% were black. Fully, 21.5% had diabetes and 53.1% had hypertension; and 40.3% were obese. Mean estimated eGFR was 98 ml/min/1.73 m2 (standard deviation = 30) and 4.7% had an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, indicating CKD. Age [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05-1.11], hypertension (OR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.18-7.07) and diabetes (OR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.80-5.43) were independent predictors of reduced eGFR in models adjusted for age, gender and obesity status. Of those with urine testing in Nevis (n = 929), 13.5% had urine albumin ≥30 mg/dL, and diabetes was an independent predictor of this finding (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Conclusions: CKD and its risk factors were prevalent among adults in St. Kitts and Nevis. Public policy strategies for prevention and treatment of these conditions may be needed to reduce their associated morbidity, mortality and costs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
JournalBMC Nephrology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 5 Jan 2017


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Diabetes
  • Epidemiology
  • Hypertension
  • Risk factors


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