A 20-year-old man without any history of a pulmonary disease presented initially with a 1-day history of fever and tachypnea and developed an acute respiratory failure within 24 hours. Microbiological and histological examinations raised an invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). A chronic granulomatous disease was identified as the predisposing factor leading to this severe fungal infection. Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by a reduced ability of phagocytes to mount an oxidative burst due to a defect in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Although IPA occurs usually in severely immunocompromised patients, it should be kept in mind that there are an increasing number of cases developing IPA in the setting of apparent health or to date undiagnosed immunodeficiency that requires further diagnostics.
- Chronic granulomatous disease
- Invasive aspergillosis
- Respiratory failure