Cholera Toxin Induces Expression of the Immediate-Early Response Gene JE via a Cyclic AMP-Independent Signaling Pathway

Sajjad A. Qureshi, Konstantina Alexandropoulos, Cecil K. Joseph, Rudolph Spangler, David A. Foster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cholera toxin (CT) activates expression of two immediate-early response genes (JE and TIS10) in quiescent BALB/c 3T3 cells. Increases in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in response to CT are likely responsible for the induction of TIS10 gene expression, since treatment with 8-Br-cAMP and increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP by treatment with forskolin induce TIS10 gene expression. In contrast, neither forskolin nor 8-Br-cAMP induces JE gene expression. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, which stabilizes intracellular cAMP, potentiates CT-induced TIS10 gene expression but has no effect on CT-induced JE gene expression. Thus, induction of JE by CT is independent of the cAMP produced in response to CT. Induction of JE by CT does not require protein kinase C (PKC), since depleting cells of PKC activity has no effect on the induction of JE by CT. CT-induced expression of JE can be distinguished from CT-induced TIS10 gene expression by using protein kinase inhibitors and inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, further suggesting distinct signaling pathways for CT-induced JE and TIS10 gene expression. Thus, induction of JE gene expression by CT results from the activation of an intracellular signaling pathway that is independent of cAMP production. This pathway is independent of PKC activity and uniquely sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinases and arachidonic acid metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-107
Number of pages6
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biology
Volume11
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1991
Externally publishedYes

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