Chemical genetics of rapamycin-insensitive TORC2 in S. cerevisiae

Joseph I. Kliegman, Dorothea Fiedler, Colm J. Ryan, Yi Fan Xu, Xiao Yang Su, David Thomas, Max C. Caccese, Ada Cheng, Michael Shales, Joshua D. Rabinowitz, Nevan J. Krogan, Kevan M. Shokat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Current approaches for identifying synergistic targets use cell culture models to see if the combined effect of clinically available drugs is better than predicted by their individual efficacy. New techniques are needed to systematically and rationally identify targets and pathways that may be synergistic targets. Here, we created a tool to screen and identify molecular targets that may synergize with new inhibitors of target of rapamycin (TOR), a conserved protein that is a major integrator of cell proliferation signals in the nutrient-signaling pathway. Although clinical results from TOR complex 1 (TORC1)-specific inhibition using rapamycin analogs have been disappointing, trials using inhibitors that also target TORC2 have been promising. To understand this increased therapeutic efficacy and to discover secondary targets for combination therapy, we engineered Tor2 in S. cerevisiae to accept an orthogonal inhibitor. We used this tool to create a chemical epistasis miniarray profile (ChE-MAP) by measuring interactions between the chemically inhibited Tor2 kinase and a diverse library of deletion mutants. The ChE-MAP identified known TOR components and distinguished between TORC1- and TORC2-dependent functions. The results showed a TORC2-specific interaction with the pentose phosphate pathway, a previously unappreciated TORC2 function that suggests a role for the complex in balancing the high energy demand required for ribosome biogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1725-1736
Number of pages12
JournalCell Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - 26 Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


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