Study Objectives: Several studies have examined sleep patterns in rural/indigenous communities, however little is known about sleep characteristics in women of reproductive age, and children within these populations. We investigate sleep-wake patterns in mothers and children (ages 3-5 years) leveraging data from the Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS). Methods: The GRAPHS cohort comprises of rural/agrarian communities in Ghana and collected multiday actigraphy in a subset of women and children to assess objective sleep-wake patterns. Data were scored using the Cole-Kripke and Sadeh algorithms for mothers/children. We report descriptive, baseline characteristics and objective sleep measures, compared by access to electricity/poverty status. Results: We analyzed data for 58 mothers (mean age 33 ± 6.6) and 64 children (mean age 4 ± 0.4). For mothers, mean bedtime was 9:40 pm ± 56 min, risetime 5:46 am ± 40 min, and total sleep time (TST) was 6.3 h ± 46 min. For children, median bedtime was 8:07 pm (interquartile range [IQR]: 7:50,8:43), risetime 6:09 am (IQR: 5:50,6:37), and mean 24-h TST 10.44 h ± 78 min. Children with access to electricity had a reduced TST compared to those without electricity (p = 0.02). Mean bedtime was later for both mothers (p = 0.05) and children (p = 0.08) classified as poor. Conclusions: Mothers in our cohort demonstrated a shorter TST, and earlier bed/risetimes compared to adults in postindustrialized nations. In contrast, children had a higher TST compared to children in postindustrialized nations, also with earlier sleep-onset and offset times. Investigating objective sleep-wake patterns in rural/indigenous communities can highlight important differences in sleep health related to sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, and help estimate the impact of industrialization on sleep in developed countries.