Characterizing Extreme Phenotypes for Pain Interference in Persons with Chronic Pain Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A NIDILRR and VA TBI Model Systems Collaborative Project

Jeanne M. Hoffman, Jessica M. Ketchum, Stephanie Agtarap, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Flora M. Hammond, Aaron M. Martin, Mitch Sevigny, William C. Walker, Cynthia Harrison-Felix, Ross Zafonte, Risa Nakase-Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To define and characterize extreme phenotypes based on pain interference for persons with chronic pain following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Setting: Eighteen Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) Centers. Participants: A total of 1762 TBIMS participants 1 to 30 years post-injury reporting chronic pain at their most recent follow-up interview. Primary Measures: The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) interference scale, sociodemographic, injury, functional outcome, pain, and treatment characteristics. Results: Participants were predominantly male (73%), White (75%), middle-aged (mean 46 years), and who were injured in motor vehicle accidents (53%) or falls (20%). Extreme phenotypes were identified based on upper and lower 25th percentiles to create low-interference (n = 441) and high-interference (n = 431) extreme phenotypes. Bivariate comparisons found several sociodemographic, injury, function, pain, and treatment differences between extreme phenotype groups, including significant differences (P <.001) on all measures of concurrent function with those in the low-interference extreme phenotype experiencing better function than those in the high-interference extreme phenotype. Lasso regression combined with logistic regression identified multivariable predictors of low- versus high-interference extreme phenotypes. Reductions in the odds of low- versus high-interference phenotypes were significantly associated with higher pain intensity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.33), having neuropathic pain (OR = 0.40), migraine headache (OR = 0.41), leg/feet pain (OR = 0.34), or hip pain (OR = 0.46), and more pain catastrophizing (OR = 0.81). Conclusion: Results suggest that for those who experience current chronic pain, there is high variability in the experience and impact of pain. Future research is needed to better understand how pain experience impacts individuals with chronic pain and TBI given that pain characteristics were the primary distinguishing factors between phenotypes. The use of extreme phenotypes for pain interference may be useful to better stratify samples to determine efficacy of pain treatment for individuals with TBI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-42
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Volume39
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • chronic pain
  • extreme phenotypes
  • pain interference
  • traumatic brain injury

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