Reproductive function is controlled by the pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which regulates the expression of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and FSH in pituitary gonadotropes. Paradoxically, Fshb gene expression is maximally induced at lower frequency GnRH pulses, which provide a very low average concentration of GnRH stimulation. We studied the role of secreted factors in modulating gonadotropin gene expression. Inhibition of secretion specifically disrupted gonadotropin subunit gene regulation but left early gene induction intact. We characterized the gonadotrope secretoproteome and global mRNA expression at baseline and after Gαs knockdown, which has been found to increase Fshb gene expression (1). We identified 1077 secreted proteins or peptides, 19 of which showed mRNA regulation by GnRH or/and Gαs knockdown. Among several novel secreted factors implicated in Fshb gene regulation, we focused on the neurosecretory protein VGF. Vgf mRNA, whose gene has been implicated in fertility (2), exhibited high induction by GnRH and depended on Gαs. In contrast with Fshb induction, Vgf induction occurred preferentially at high GnRH pulse frequency. We hypothesized that a VGF-derived peptide might regulate Fshb gene induction. siRNA knockdown or extracellular immunoneutralization of VGF augmented Fshb mRNA induction by GnRH. GnRH stimulated the secretion of the VGF-derived peptide NERP1. NERP1 caused a concentration-dependent decrease in Fshb gene induction. These findings implicate a VGF-derived peptide in selective regulation of the Fshb gene. Our results support the concept that signaling specificity from the cell membrane GnRH receptor to the nuclear Fshb gene involves integration of intracellular signaling and exosignaling regulatory motifs.