Gene 1.7 protein is the only known nucleotide kinase encoded by bacteriophage T7. The enzyme phosphorylates dTMP and dGMP to dTDP and dGDP, respectively, in the presence of a phosphate donor. The phosphate donors are dTTP, dGTP, and ribo-GTP as well as the thymidine and guanosine triphosphate analogs ddTTP, ddGTP, and dITP. The nucleotide kinase is found in solution as a 256-kDa complex consisting of ∼12 monomers of the gene 1.7 protein. The two molecular weight forms co-purify as a complex, but each form has nearly identical kinase activity. Although gene 1.7 protein does not require a metal ion for its kinase activity, the presence of Mg2+ in the reaction mixture results in either inhibition or stimulation of the rate of kinase reactions depending on the substrates used. Both the dTMP and dGMP kinase reactions are reversible. Neither dTDP nor dGDP is a phosphate acceptor of nucleoside triphosphate donors. Gene 1.7 protein exhibits two different equilibrium patterns toward deoxyguanosine and thymidine substrates. The K m of 4.4 × 10-4 M obtained with dTTP for dTMP kinase is ∼3-fold higher than that obtained with dGTP for dGMP kinase (1.3 × 10-4 M), indicating that a higher concentration of dTTP is required to saturate the enzyme. Inhibition studies indicate a competitive relationship between dGDP and both dGTP, dGMP, whereas dTDP appears to have a mixed type of inhibition of dTMP kinase. Studies suggest two functions of dTTP, as a phosphate donor and a positive effector of the dTMP kinase reaction.