Background. Multiple randomized trials over the past 2 decades have supported oral antimicrobial treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI), and the 2011 revised American Academy Pediatrics guidelines on the management of UTI provide further support for outpatient management. It is unknown whether practice patterns have changed as a result of these developments. Objective. To examine temporal trends in UTI hospitalizations between 1997 and 2012 as measured by the Kids’ Inpatient Database. Design and Methods. The Kid’s Inpatient Database was used to analyze trends in UTI hospitalizations between 1997 and 2012. This triennial database is publicly available through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Hospitalization volume for clinical classification software principal diagnosis category 159 Urinary tract infection was examined for trends across years by age. Changes in length of stay and charges corrected for inflation were also examined. Results. There were significantly fewer weighted UTI hospitalizations in 2012 compared with 1997 to 2009 (48 102 SE ± 1494 in 2009 vs 41 177 SE ± 1467 in 2012, P <.0001). The largest decrease was in 15- to 17-year-old (19.2%) and <1-year-old (18.6%) groups. The length of stay trended down consistently, but charges have increased despite correcting for consumer price index. Conclusions. Year 2012 represents the first significant decrease in national hospitalization rates for UTI since 1997, a trend that may be explained by the accumulating evidence supporting outpatient management in addition to recommendations from the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics UTI guidelines.
- AAP guidelines
- hospitalization rates