Changes in Dynamic Mean Ankle Moment Arm in Unimpaired Walking Across Speeds, Ramps, and Stairs

Katherine Heidi Fehr, Jenny A. Kent, Matthew J. Major, Peter Gabriel Adamczyk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Understanding the natural biomechanics of walking at different speeds and activities is crucial to develop effective assistive devices for persons with lower-limb impairments. While continuous measures such as joint angle and moment are well-suited for biomimetic control of robotic systems, whole-stride summary metrics are useful for describing changes across behaviors and for designing and controlling passive and semi-active devices. Dynamic mean ankle moment arm (DMAMA) is a whole-stride measure representing the moment arm of the ground reaction impulse about the ankle joint—effectively, how “forefoot-dominated” or “hindfoot-dominated” a movement is. DMAMA was developed as a target and performance metric for semi-active devices that adjust once per stride. However, for implementation in this application, DMAMA must be characterized across various activities in unimpaired individuals. In our study, unimpaired participants walked at “slow,” “normal,” and “fast” self-selected speeds on level ground and at a normal self-selected speed while ascending and descending stairs and a 5-degree incline ramp. DMAMA measured from these activities displayed a borderline-significant negative sensitivity to walking speed, a significant positive sensitivity to ground incline, and a significant decrease when ascending stairs compared to descending. The data suggested a nonlinear relationship between DMAMA and walking speed; half of the participants had the highest average DMAMA at their “normal” speed. Our findings suggest that DMAMA varies substantially across activities, and thus, matching DMAMA could be a valuable metric to consider when designing biomimetic assistive lower-limb devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number094501
JournalJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2024
Externally publishedYes


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