Changes in depressive symptoms, stress and social support in Mexican women during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nadya Y. Rivera Rivera, Laura McGuinn, Erika Osorio-valencia, Sandra Martinez-medina, Lourdes Schnaas, Rosalind J. Wright, Martha Maria Téllez-rojo, Robert O. Wright, Marcela Tamayo-ortiz, Maria José Rosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to examine changes in depression, stress and social support levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in women living in Mexico City. We studied 466 women enrolled in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study who completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) questionnaire prior (2018–2019) and during the lockdown period of the pandemic (May–November 2020). Psychosocial stress and social support for both time periods were ascertained using the Crisis in Family Systems (CRISYS) questionnaire and the Social Support Network (SSN) Scale, respectively. Associations between stress, social support and change in EDS score/depression were analyzed using generalized linear models adjusting for covariates. Higher stress (> median) during the pandemic was associated with an increase in EDS score (β: 2.13; 95% CI (1.06, 3.19), p < 0.001), and higher odds of depression (OR: 3.75; 95% CI (2.17, 6.50), p < 0.001), while social support was associated with lower odds of depression (OR: 0.56, 95% CI (0.32, 0.97), p =0.037). Higher levels of stress during the pandemic were associated with depression. Social support may act as a buffer for the effects of psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of stress associated with the pandemic on mental and overall health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8775
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2 Aug 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Depression
  • Social support
  • Stress
  • Women


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