Change in dyslipidemia with declining glomerular filtration rate and increasing proteinuria in children with ckd

Jeffrey M. Saland, Juan C. Kupferman, Christopher B. Pierce, Joseph T. Flynn, Mark M. Mitsnefes, Bradley A. Warady, Susan L. Furth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background and objectives Dyslipidemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is common in CKD but its change over time and how that change is influenced by concurrent progression of CKD have not been previously described. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In the CKD in Children study we prospectively followed children with progressive CKD and utilized multivariable, linear mixed-effects models to quantify the longitudinal relationship between within-subject changes in lipid measures (HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and within-subject changes in GFR, proteinuria, and body mass index (BMI). Results A total of 508 children (76% nonglomerular CKD, 24% glomerular CKD) had 2–6 lipid measurements each, with a median follow-up time of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1–6.0) years. Among children with nonglomerular CKD, dyslipidemia was common at baseline (35%) and increased significantly as children aged; 43% of children with glomerular CKD had dyslipidemia at baseline and demonstrated persistent levels as they aged. Longitudinal increases in proteinuria were independently associated with significant concomitant increases in non-HDL cholesterol (nonglomerular: 4.9 [IQR, 3.4–6.4] mg/dl; glomerular: 8.5 [IQR, 6.0–11.1] mg/dl) and triglycerides (nonglomerular: 3% [IQR, 0.8%–6%]; glomerular: 5% [IQR, 0.6%–9%]). Decreases in GFR over follow-up were significantly associated with concomitant decreases of HDL cholesterol in children with nonglomerular CKD (21.2 mg/dl; IQR, 22.1 to 20.4 mg/dl) and increases of non-HDL cholesterol in children with glomerular CKD (3.9 mg/dl; IQR, 1.4–6.5 mg/dl). The effects of increased BMI also affected multiple lipid changes over time. Collectively, glomerular CKD displayed stronger, deleterious associations between within-subject change in non-HDL cholesterol (9 mg/dl versus 1.2 mg/dl; P,0.001) and triglycerides (14% versus 3%; P=0.004), and within-subject change in BMI; similar but quantitatively smaller differences between the two types of CKD were noted for associations of within-subject change in lipids to within-subject change in GFR and proteinuria. Conclusions Dyslipidemia is a common and persistent complication in children with CKD and it worsens in proportion to declining GFR, worsening proteinuria, and increasing BMI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1711-1718
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 6 Dec 2019


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