Cervical Spine Deformity: Indications, Considerations, and Surgical Outcomes

Samuel K. Cho, Scott Safir, Joseph M. Lombardi, Jun S. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Cervical spinal deformity (CSD) in adult patients is a relatively uncommon yet debilitating condition with diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations. Similar to thoracolumbar deformity, CSD can be broadly divided into scoliosis and kyphosis. Severe forms of CSD can lead to pain; neurologic deterioration, including myelopathy; and cervical spine-specific symptoms such as difficulty with horizontal gaze, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Recently, an increased interest is shown in systematically studying CSD with introduction of classification schemes and treatment algorithms. Both major and minor complications after surgical intervention have been analyzed and juxtaposed to patient-reported outcomes. An ongoing effort exists to better understand the relationship between cervical and thoracolumbar spinal alignment, most importantly in the sagittal plane.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E555-E567
JournalThe Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Issue number12
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


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