Cervical Dystonia

K. Dashtipour, D. M. Swope

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of the focal dystonia, which causes abnormal neck posture. CD can present with neck spasm, abnormal neck posture, head and neck tremor, and pain. The exact pathophysiology of CD is unknown. There are several hypotheses explaining the role of basal ganglia in CD. Dystonic movements may be sustained or spasmodic, and may remain focal or spread to adjacent muscles. Remissions may rarely occur. Many symptomatic treatments are available, including medical and surgical therapy and as well as local injections of botulinum toxin into involved neck muscles. Currently, botulinum toxin injection is the most effective symptomatic therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Movement Disorders, Three-Volume Set
ISBN (Electronic)9780123741059
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Basal ganglia
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Cervical dystonia
  • Dopamine
  • Dystonia
  • Dystonic tremor
  • Headache
  • Muscle
  • Neck
  • Spasmodic torticollis
  • Torticollis


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