Certain HLA-DR5 and -DR6 major histocompatibility complex class II alleles are associated with a CD8 lymphocytic host response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 characterized by low lymphocyte viral strain heterogeneity and slow disease progression

Silviu Itescu, Sam Rose, Edward Dwyer, Robert Winchester

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Abstract

Either of two structurally related major histocompatibility complex class II alleles, DRB1*1102, which encodes a DR5 specificity, or DRB1*1301, which encodes a DR6 specificity, was found in 67% of individuals responding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HFV-1) infection with a syndrome characterized by persistent circulating and diffusely infiltrative CD8 lymphocytosis (DILS), slow progression to opportunistic infections, and delayed CD4 T-cell depletion. These alleles were present in only 28% of ethnically matched HIV-positive controls (P = 0.001). The frequency of DRB1*1301 was increased in both Blacks and Caucasians with this syndrome, while that of DRBI*1102 was increased only in Blacks, where 80% had either of these alleles. To investigate whether the host response associated with these alleles influences the evolutionary divergence of the HIV-1 genome, sequencing of the envelope V3 loop was performed. This revealed a significantly diminished lymphocyte viral heterogeneity compared with random HIV+ controls matched for CD4 T-cell levels. These results suggest that the inununogenetics of the host influence the nature of the immune response to HIV-1, which may lead to constrained evolution of HIV-1 gene products. Of possible relevance, the α-helical third diversity region common to both the DRB1*1102 and DRB1*1301 allelic products was noted to have homology with the C-terminal region of the HIV-1 envelope V3 loop at six of nine consecutive residues. This suggests the possibility that these alleles may bias the anti-HIV T-cell receptor repertoire through a mimicry mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11472-11476
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume91
Issue number24
StatePublished - 22 Nov 1994
Externally publishedYes

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