Cerebral ischemia associated with PercuSurge balloon occlusion balloon during carotid stenting: Incidence and possible mechanisms

Rabih A. Chaer, Susan Trocciola, Brian DeRubertis, Stephanie C. Lin, K. Craig Kent, Peter L. Faries

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20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Interruption of antegrade cerebral perfusion results in transient neurologic intolerance in some patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). This study sought to evaluate factors that contributed to the development of cerebral ischemia during PercuSurge balloon occlusion and techniques used to allow successful completion of the CAS procedure. Methods: The PercuSurge occlusion balloon was used in 43 of 165 patients treated with CAS for high-grade stenosis (mean stenosis, 90%). All 43 patients were at increased risk for endarterectomy (7 restenosis, 3 irradiation, 3 contralateral occlusion, and 30 Goldman class II-III); 20% were symptomatic. Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion during temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery occurred in 10 of 43 and included dysarthria (7/10), agitation (6/10), decreased level of consciousness (5/10), and focal hemispheric deficit (3/10). An incomplete circle of Willis or contralateral carotid artery occlusion, or both, was present in 8 of 10 patients. Symptoms resulting from PercuSurge balloon occlusion were managed by balloon deflation with or without evacuation of blood from the internal carotid artery using the Export catheter. All symptoms resolved completely without deficit after deflation of the occlusion balloon. Results: The development of neurologic symptoms after initial PercuSurge balloon inflation and occluded internal carotid artery flow was associated with a decrease in the mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from 15 to 10 (range, 9 to 14); the GCS returned to normal after occlusion balloon deflation and remained normal during subsequent reinflation. The mean time to spontaneous recovery of full neurologic function was 8 minutes (range, 4 to 15 minutes). No thrombotic or embolic events were present on cerebral angiography or computed tomography scan. Balloon reinflation was performed after a mean reperfusion interval of 10 minutes after full neurologic recovery (range, 4 to 20 minutes). The mean subsequent procedure duration was 11.9 minutes (range, 6 to 21 minutes). No recurrence of neurologic symptoms occurred when the occlusion balloon was reinflated. All 10 patients underwent successful CAS without occlusion, dissection, cerebrovascular accident, or death. Conclusion: Several factors may contribute to the development of neurologic intolerance during CAS with balloon occlusion. Elucidation of the protective cellular mechanisms that invoke ischemic tolerance after the initial transient ischemic event may enable CAS with embolic protection in patients who cannot tolerate initial interruption of antegrade cerebral perfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)946-952
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Volume43
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2006
Externally publishedYes

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