Cardiac MRI Endpoints in Myocardial Infarction Experimental and Clinical Trials: JACC Scientific Expert Panel

Borja Ibanez, Anthony H. Aletras, Andrew E. Arai, Hakan Arheden, Jeroen Bax, Colin Berry, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, Pierre Croisille, Erica Dall'Armellina, Rohan Dharmakumar, Ingo Eitel, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Matthias G. Friedrich, David García-Dorado, Derek J. Hausenloy, Raymond J. Kim, Sebastian Kozerke, Christopher M. Kramer, Michael Salerno, Javier Sánchez-GonzálezJavier Sanz, Valentin Fuster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

234 Scopus citations


After a reperfused myocardial infarction (MI), dynamic tissue changes occur (edema, inflammation, microvascular obstruction, hemorrhage, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and ultimately replacement by fibrosis). The extension and magnitude of these changes contribute to long-term prognosis after MI. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold-standard technique for noninvasive myocardial tissue characterization. CMR is also the preferred methodology for the identification of potential benefits associated with new cardioprotective strategies both in experimental and clinical trials. However, there is a wide heterogeneity in CMR methodologies used in experimental and clinical trials, including time of post-MI scan, acquisition protocols, and, more importantly, selection of endpoints. There is a need for standardization of these methodologies to improve the translation into a real clinical benefit. The main objective of this scientific expert panel consensus document is to provide recommendations for CMR endpoint selection in experimental and clinical trials based on pathophysiology and its association with hard outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-256
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 16 Jul 2019


  • area at risk
  • clinical trial
  • edema
  • endpoint
  • infarct size
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • myocardial infarction


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