After several decades, therapeutic cancer vaccines now show signs of efficacy and potential to help patients resistant to other standard-of-care immunotherapies, but they have yet to realize their full potential and expand the oncologic armamentarium. Here, we classify cancer vaccines by what is known of the included antigens, which tumors express those antigens and where the antigens colocalize with antigen-presenting cells, thus delineating predefined vaccines (shared or personalized) and anonymous vaccines (ex vivo or in situ). To expedite clinical development, we highlight the need for accurate immune monitoring of early trials to acknowledge failures and advance the most promising vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)911-926
Number of pages16
JournalNature Cancer
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


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