Can Frailty Indices Predict Surgical Risk in Open Reduction and Fixation of Facial Fractures?

Abigail Katz, Eric Alerte, Arya Akhavan, Annet Kuruvilla, Taylor Ibelli, Helen Liu, Suhas Etigunta, Peter J. Taub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: The present study sought to evaluate whether the mFI-5 and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI) are stronger predictors of 30-day postoperative complications after open reduction of facial fractures compared with historic risk proxies. Methods: A retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was conducted to investigate patients who underwent open reduction facial fracture surgery between 2013 and 2018. Risk factors including age, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class were extracted for each patient. The mFI-5 score and mCCI score were calculated based on this data. Univariate logistic regressions were performed (P<0.05) Results: A total of 2667 cases were included. Of these, 2131 (80%) were male. The strongest predictors for overall 30-day complications and complication severity were ASA class ≥3 (Odds Ratio [OR]=3.34), comorbidities ≥2 (OR=2.78), mCCl score ≥2 (OR=2.19), and mFI-5 ≥1 (OR=1.96). Smoking status and BMI were not strong predictors of total complications or complication severity. Age was found to be a statically significant, but low-impact, predictor of complications, and severity (OR=1.02, P<0.001). The only significant predictors of surgical site infections (SSI) were smoking status (OR=1.56) and ASA class ≥3 (OR=2.40). mFI-5 ≥1 was a significant predictor of hospital readmission. BMI was not associated with any increased risk. Conclusions: The mCCI and mFI-5 are statistically significant predictors of total complications and complication severity in open reduction of facial fracture repair, and thus provide a tool to inform decision making and improve care. Smoking status may increase risk for SSIs following facial fracture repair.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2573-2577
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2022


  • charlson comorbidity index
  • complications
  • frailty risk index
  • mFI-5
  • maxillofacial fracture


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