Burnout Among Transplant Hepatologists in the United States

Kamron Pourmand, Thomas D. Schiano, Yash Motwani, Michael Kriss, Laurie Keefer, Arpan Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Burnout among transplant hepatologists has not been well characterized. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of burnout among practicing transplant hepatologists in the United States. We designed a 69-item survey, including the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)–Human Services Survey and questions on provider demographics, practice characteristics, and psychological factors. The survey was administered to practicing US transplant hepatologists between October and December 2019. We described burnout using MBI subscales (emotional exhaustion [EE], depersonalization [DP], and personal accomplishment [PA]) and determined significant predictors of burnout, which we defined as high EE, using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 185 transplant hepatologists completed the survey (response rate = 25% of 738 practicing transplant hepatologists in the United States). A total of 40% reported high EE, whereas 17% and 16% reported high DP and low PA, respectively. On multivariate analysis, respondents with more than 5 colleagues (odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.84) reporting adequate time for outpatient visits (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80), reporting greater comfort with their clinical caseload (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.96), and reporting higher confidence in their prior training (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.87) had a lower likelihood of high EE. Working 6 or more hours from home outside of work per week (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07-3.89) predicted a higher likelihood of burnout. Compensation, age, gender, career phase, caregiver status, and transplant center volume did not predict burnout. Of the surveyed transplant hepatologists, 40% experienced burnout, predicted mostly by factors related to work-time distribution, peer support, and affect. These findings should prompt development of system-level initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)867-875
Number of pages9
JournalLiver Transplantation
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


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