Bulboventricular foramen resection: Hemodynamic and electrophysiologic results

Robert H. Pass, David E. Solowiejczyk, Jan M. Quaegebeur, Leonardo Liberman, Karen Altmann, Welton M. Gersony, Allan J. Hordof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Background. The two major surgical approaches to the relief of bulboventricular foramen (BVF) obstruction in patients with single left ventricle (LV) are the Damus-Kaye-Stansel (DKS) procedure or direct BVF resection. Theoretical advantages of the DKS include better outflow gradient relief, lower potential incidences of postoperative heart block and lower incidences of reoperation. Potential disadvantages of this approach include increased semilunar valvar insufficiency, lack of feasibility when attempting septation-type operations for univentricular hearts, and a technically more difficult operation. We report the results of direct surgical BVF resection. Methods. From June 1990 to June 1999, 9 patients had direct BVF resection performed at our institution. The median age at surgery was 16.5 years (range 1 month to 27 years). Diagnoses in these patients were {S,L,L} single LV (n = 8) and {S,D,D} single LV tricuspid atresia (n = 1). Eight of 9 patients had pulmonary artery bands placed either before BVF resection or at the same time as this procedure. Three patients required reoperation for reobstruction at the BVF (12 total operations in 9 patients). Results. Median preoperative peak systolic gradient across the BVF measured at cardiac catheterization was 47 mm Hg (range 10 to 63 mm Hg). The median peak gradient measured by Doppler echocardiography was 44 mm Hg (range 5 to 125 mm Hg). Eight of 9 patients survived the operation to discharge from the hospital and 7 of 9 are alive at follow-up. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range 5 to 76 months), 8 of 8 surviving patients had an unobstructed BVF as determined by qualitative two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler color flow imaging. There was one perioperative and one late death 5 months postoperatively (secondary to fungal sepsis). No patient developed new or worsened aortic insufficiency after BVF resection. Eight of 9 patients had no change in AV nodal conduction after surgery. One patient developed Mobitz II heart block requiring postoperative implantation of a pacemaker. Conclusions. Direct resection of an obstructive BVF can be performed with total relief of obstruction although reoperation may be required. Atrioventricular nodal function can be preserved in most patients with this operative approach, including those with {S,L,L} segmental anatomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1251-1254
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


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