The development of influenza vaccines that can provide broad protection against all drifted seasonal virus variants, zoonotic infections and emerging pandemic strains, has been a priority for two decades. Here we propose a strategy of inducing broadly-reactive anti-stalk antibody by sequential immunizations with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) expressing chimeric HAs (cHAs). These vaccines are designed to contain identical hemagglutinin stalk domains from H1N1 virus but antigenically unrelated globular head domains from avian influenza virus subtypes H5, H8 and H9. Mouse experiments demonstrated enhanced cross-protection of cHA-containing LAIVs compared to the relevant vaccine viruses expressing natural HAs, and this enhanced protection was driven by stalk-HA-reactive IgG antibodies. The establishment of fully functional cross-protective immunity after two doses of cHA LAIV vaccination in naïve animals suggests that a similar effect might be expected after a single cHA LAIV dose in primed individuals, or after two to three doses in naïve children.
- Anti-stalk antibody
- Chimeric hemagglutinin
- Live attenuated influenza vaccine
- Mouse model
- Universal influenza vaccine