Breastfeeding Duration Is Not Associated With Offspring Inflammatory Bowel Disease Risk in Three Population-Based Birth Cohorts

Manasi Agrawal, Ketil Størdal, Anne Vinkel Hansen, Malin Östensson, Maiara Brusco De Freitas, Kristine H. Allin, Tine Jess, Johnny Ludvigsson, Karl Mårild

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background & Aims: Breastfeeding is critical for offspring health and development. Although many observational studies report a protective effect between breastfeeding and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the relationship is not well-understood. Methods: We used prospectively collected data from 3 population-based birth cohorts (Danish National Birth Cohort, Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort, and All Babies in Southeast Sweden) and cross-linked national registers to ascertain the impact of breastfeeding duration on offspring IBD risk in each country, using adjusted Cox proportional regression analyses. We performed meta-analyses to determine pooled estimates. Results: We included 148,737 offspring and 169,510 offspring in analyses of exclusive and any breastfeeding duration, respectively. During median follow-up of 16.3–22.3 years, between 1996 and 2021, 543 offspring were diagnosed with IBD. In each country, there was no association between exclusive breastfeeding duration and offspring IBD risk after adjusting for birth year (Denmark), offspring sex, parental IBD status, maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, age at delivery, mode of delivery, preterm birth, and small for gestational age. The pooled adjusted hazard ratio for IBD was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.62; Q = 0.16, I2 = 0.0%) and 1.02 (95% confidence interval, 0.85–1.21; Q = 1.45, I 2= 0.0%) among offspring breastfed exclusively for ≥6 months and <4 months, respectively, compared with 4–5 months. Similarly, we found null associations in pooled analyses of any breastfeeding duration and IBD, subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, as well as in cohort-specific analyses. Conclusions: In prospectively collected data from 3 population-based birth cohorts, the duration of exclusive or any breastfeeding was not associated with offspring IBD risk.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Breast Feeding
  • Crohn's Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Ulcerative Colitis


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