Botulinum toxin historical perspective and potential new indications

Joseph Jankovic, Mitchell F. Brin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

162 Scopus citations


Botulinum toxin (BTX), a purified form of the neurotoxin responsible for botulism, is used worldwide for the treatment of abnormal muscle contractions. The ability of BTX to block acetylcholine release in a long-lasting but reversible fashion with few side effects has made it an important tool in a wide variety of neuromuscular disorders, including the dystonias, tremor, tics, and spasticity. There are seven antigenically distinct toxins. BTX-A has been in clinical use for almost two decades, with an outstanding efficacy and safety profile. Clinical effects are often seen within 1 week of injection, and benefits typically last from 3-6 months. Patient selection and the proper choice of dose and administration site are the most important determinants of a favorable response to BTX treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S129-S145
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue numberSUPPL. 6
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Botulinum toxin (BTX)
  • Dystonia
  • Hemifacial spasm
  • Spasticity
  • Tics
  • Tremors


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