Body mass index trajectories during the first year of life and their determining factors

Junxiu Liu, Jihong Liu, Edward A. Frongillo, Nansi S. Boghossian, Bo Cai, Haiming Zhou, Linda J. Hazlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in the first year of life and their determining factors. Methods: We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II restricted to children with 2 or more time points of BMI data during follow-up visits within the first year of life (n = 2320). Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct BMI trajectories. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the prenatal and early life determinants of the identified trajectories. Results: Three BMI trajectories were identified during the first year of life: “low-stable” (81.6%), “high-stable” (15.6%), and “rising” (2.8%) trajectories. Boys, preterm infants, infants born to overweight mothers, Hispanic mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers, and mothers who smoked during pregnancy were significantly more likely to have high-stable versus low-stable trajectories. Infants born to non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have a rising versus a low-stable trajectory. Household income ≥350% of the federal poverty level and full adherence to the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics for both breastfeeding exclusivity and duration reduced the likelihood of infants being in the rising versus the low-stable trajectory. Conclusion: Distinct BMI trajectories were evident as early as infancy. The predictors of these trajectories offer information about high-risk groups, and important and preventable prenatal and postnatal risk factors for future intervention programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere23188
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


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