Body image in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Validation of the body image disturbance questionnaire-scoliosis version

Joshua D. Auerbach, Baron S. Lonner, Canice E. Crerand, Suken A. Shah, John M. Flynn, Tracey Bastrom, Phedra Penn, Jennifer Ahn, Courtney Toombs, Neil Bharucha, Whitney P. Bowe, Peter O. Newton

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Background: Appearance concerns in individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can result in impairment in daily functioning, or body image disturbance. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) is a self-reported, seven-question instrument that measures body image disturbance in general populations; no studies have specifically examined body image disturbance in those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to validate a modified version of the BIDQ in a population with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to establish discriminant validity by comparing responses of operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with those of normal controls. Methods: In the first phase, a multicenter study of forty-nine patients (mean age, fourteen years; thirty-seven female) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was performed to validate the BIDQ-Scoliosis version (BIDQ-S). Participants completed the BIDQ-S, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, Children's Depression Index (CDI), and Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In the second phase, ninety-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 15.7 years; seventy-five female) matched by age and sex with ninety-eight healthy adolescents were enrolled into a single-center study to evaluate the discriminant validity of the BIDQ-S. Subjects completed the BIDQ-S and a demographic form before treatment. Independent-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: The BIDQ-S was internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.82), and corrected item total correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.67. The BIDQ-S was significantly correlated with each domain of the SRS-22 and the total score (r = -0.50 to -0.72, p ≤ 0.001), with the CDI (r = 0.31, p = 0.03), and with the BESAA (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). BIDQ-S scores differed significantly between patients (1.50) and controls (1.06, p < 0.005), establishing discriminant validity. Conclusions: The BIDQ-S is an internally consistent outcomes instrument that correlated with the SRS-22, CDI, and BESAA outcomes instruments in a scoliosis population. The scores of the patients with scoliosis indicated greater backrelated body image disturbance compared with healthy controls. To our knowledge, this user-friendly instrument is the first to examine body image disturbance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and it provides a comprehensive evaluation of how scoliosis-related appearance concerns impact psychosocial and daily functioning. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e61(1)
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - 16 Apr 2014
Externally publishedYes


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