Black race may be associated with worse overall survival in renal cell carcinoma patients

Harry Anastos, Alberto Martini, Nikhil Waingankar, David J. Paulucci, Alp Tuna Beksac, Jorge Daza, Hiren V. Patel, Greg E. Gin, John P. Sfakianos, Ketan K. Badani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine socio-demographic and treatment variables in an attempt to identify factors associated with survival differences between black and white patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients and Methods: We identified 79,618 white and 10,604 black patients diagnosed with RCC in the National Cancer Database. We compared the distribution of socio-demographic, presentation and treatment variables between Blacks and Whites and then utilized a multivariable cox proportion hazards regression model to evaluate the contribution of differences in these variables to disparities in overall survival (OS). Results: Black patients were younger (60 vs. 63 years, P< 0.001) and with a lower stage (12.0% vs. 18.8% Stage III–IV P< 0.001). Blacks presented with a higher Charlson-Deyo score (P< 0.001), lower income (P< 0.001), lower education (P< 0.001) and were less likely to receive radical nephrectomy and systemic therapy for stage IV RCC (29.9% vs. 38.8%, P< 0.001). Unadjusted OS was lower for Whites (5-year survival 79% for Blacks and 77% for Whites). However, OS was lower for Blacks when adjusted for all variables (5-year survival 89% for Blacks and 93% for Whites). On multivariable analysis, black race was independently associated with worse OS, HR: 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.14, P= 0.002). A sensitivity analysis including patients with complete data on tumor grade confirmed our results. Conclusion: Our study indicates that black patients present at a younger age and with lower stage RCC, but have worse OS. Blacks experienced disparities in socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment-related factors, and had an independently increased hazard of death.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)938.e9-938.e17
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Co-morbidities
  • Overall survival
  • Racial disparities
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Socioeconomic status


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