Bispectral analysis during deep sedation of pediatric oral surgery patients

Frank L. Overly, Robert O. Wright, Francis A. Connor, Gregory D. Jay, James G. Linakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Bispectral (BIS) analysis uses electroencephalogram information from a forehead electrode to calculate an index score (0 to 100; 0 = coma; 90 to 100 = awake). This index score correlates with the level of alertness in anesthetized patients. Classically, sedation has been monitored with clinical sedation scales such as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness Sedation Scale (OAA/S), Modified Ramsey Scale, or a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Our objective was to determine the correlation between clinical sedation scales and BIS index in pediatric patients undergoing sedation in an outpatient oral surgery setting. Prospective cohort study of patients aged 2 to 17 years undergoing sedation in an outpatient oral surgery office. Sedation was performed in the customary manner with the addition of BIS monitoring. Three clinical sedation scores (OAA/S: 5 to 1; 5 = awake, 1 = unresponsive; Modified Ramsey: 1 to 6; 1-2 = awake, 6 = unresponsive; VAS: 0 to 10; 0 = awake, 10 = unresponsive) were assigned every 5 minutes by an investigator blinded to the BIS index. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures linear regression model. Sixteen subjects undergoing oral surgery, ages 4.5 years to 17 years, were enrolled, mean age 12.6 years ± 4.3 years (standard deviation). Patients received methohexital in addition to 1 or more of the following: nitrous oxide, fentanyl, or midazolam. The results of the longitudinal regression analysis showed a highly significant association between the sedation scales and the BIS index. The BIS monitor may be a useful adjunct in monitoring pediatric patients receiving sedation in the outpatient setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-219
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2005
Externally publishedYes


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