Biomimetic matrices for rapidly forming mineralized bone tissue based on stem cell-mediated osteogenesis

Marta S. Carvalho, Atharva A. Poundarik, Joaquim M.S. Cabral, Cláudia L. da Silva, Deepak Vashishth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bone regeneration, following fracture, relies on autologous and allogenic bone grafts. However, majority of fracture population consists of older individuals with poor quality bone associated with loss and/or modification of matrix proteins critical for bone formation and mineralization. Allografts suffer from same limitations and carry the risk of delayed healing, infection, immune rejection and eventual fracture. In this work, we apply a synergistic biomimetic strategy to develop matrices that rapidly form bone tissue - a critical aspect of fracture healing of weight bearing bones. Collagen matrices, enhanced with two selected key matrix proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and/or osteopontin (OPN), increased the rate and quantity of synthesized bone matrix by increasing mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) proliferation, accelerating osteogenic differentiation, enhancing angiogenesis and showing a sustained bone formation response from MSC obtained from a variety of human tissue sources (marrow, fat and umbilical cord). In vivo assessment of OC/OPN mineralized scaffolds in a critical sized-defect rabbit long-bone model did not reveal any foreign body reaction while bone tissue was being formed. We demonstrate a new biomimetic strategy to rapidly form mineralized bone tissue and secure a sustained bone formation response by MSC from multiple sources, thus facilitating faster patient recovery and treatment of non-union fractures in aging and diseased population. Acellular biomimetic matrices elicit bone regeneration response from MSC, obtained from multiple tissue sources, and can be used in variety of scaffolds and made widely available.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14388
JournalScientific Reports
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes

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