Biomechanical models to study spinal phenotypes

Meredith K. Bartelstein, Khushdeep S. Vig, Rose G. Long, Andrew C. Hecht, James C. Iatridis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Spinal phenotypes commonly involve degenerative changes to the intervertebral disc (IVD). This chapter describes biomechanical and biological changes that result from injuries that simulate the annulus-driven and endplate-driven clinical IVD degeneration phenotypes recognized in the literature. These models include ex vivo biomechanical studies, finite element modeling, IVD cell, and organ culture studies. The model systems serve to identify the biomechanical and biological effects of needle puncture injuries, incisions in the annulus fibrosus, nucleotomy, and simulation of endplate fracture. This chapter highlights the research strategies for the IVD focused on injury models that mirror distinct clinical phenotypes and that can directly inform these clinical phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpine Phenotypes
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780128227787
ISBN (Print)9780128227794
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Annulus-driven
  • Biomechanics
  • Degeneration
  • Disc
  • Drivers
  • Endplate-driven
  • Finite element modeling
  • IVD
  • Models
  • Phenotypes


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